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  • Introduction :: ITALY

  • Italy became a nation-state in 1861 when the regional states of the peninsula, along with Sardinia and Sicily, were united under King Victor EMMANUEL II. An era of parliamentary government came to a close in the early 1920s when Benito MUSSOLINI established a Fascist dictatorship. His alliance with Nazi Germany led to Italy's defeat in World War II. A democratic republic replaced the monarchy in 1946 and economic revival followed. Italy is a charter member of NATO and the European Economic Community (EEC) and its subsequent successors the EC and the EU. It has been at the forefront of European economic and political unification, joining the Economic and Monetary Union in 1999. Persistent problems include sluggish economic growth, high youth and female unemployment, organized crime, corruption, and economic disparities between southern Italy and the more prosperous north.

    photos
  • Geography :: ITALY

  • Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia

    42 50 N, 12 50 E

    Europe

    total: 301,340 sq km

    land: 294,140 sq km

    water: 7,200 sq km

    note: includes Sardinia and Sicily

    country comparison to the world:

    almost twice the size of Georgia; slightly larger than Arizona

    Area comparison map:

    The World Factbook

    Europe ::ITALY

    Area Comparison

    almost twice the size of Georgia; slightly larger than Arizona

    total: 1,836.4 km

    border countries (6): Austria 404 km, France 476 km, Holy See (Vatican City) 3.4 km, San Marino 37 km, Slovenia 218 km, Switzerland 698 km

    7,600 km

    territorial sea: 12 nm

    continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

    predominantly Mediterranean; alpine in far north; hot, dry in south

    mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlands

    mean elevation: 538 m

    elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

    highest point: Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco) de Courmayeur 4,748 m (a secondary peak of Mont Blanc)

    coal, mercury, zinc, potash, marble, barite, asbestos, pumice, fluorspar, feldspar, pyrite (sulfur), natural gas and crude oil reserves, fish, arable land

    agricultural land: 47.1%

    arable land 22.8%; permanent crops 8.6%; permanent pasture 15.7%

    forest: 31.4%

    other: 21.5% (2011 est.)

    39,500 sq km (2012)

    despite a distinctive pattern with an industrial north and an agrarian south, a fairly even population distribution exists throughout most of the country, with coastal areas, the Po River Valley, and urban centers (particularly Milan, Rome, and Naples), attracting larger and denser populations

    regional risks include landslides, mudflows, avalanches, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding; land subsidence in Venice

    volcanism: significant volcanic activity; Etna (3,330 m), which is in eruption as of 2010, is Europe's most active volcano; flank eruptions pose a threat to nearby Sicilian villages; Etna, along with the famous Vesuvius, which remains a threat to the millions of nearby residents in the Bay of Naples area, have both been deemed Decade Volcanoes by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Stromboli, on its namesake island, has also been continuously active with moderate volcanic activity; other historically active volcanoes include Campi Flegrei, Ischia, Larderello, Pantelleria, Vulcano, and Vulsini

    air pollution from industrial emissions such as sulfur dioxide; coastal and inland rivers polluted from industrial and agricultural effluents; acid rain damaging lakes; inadequate industrial waste treatment and disposal facilities

    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

    strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe

  • People and Society :: ITALY

  • 62,137,802 (July 2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    noun: Italian(s)

    adjective: Italian

    Italian (includes small clusters of German-, French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians in the south)

    Italian (official), German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly German speaking), French (small French-speaking minority in Valle d'Aosta region), Slovene (Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia area)

    Christian 80% (overwhelmingly Roman Catholic with very small groups of Jehovah's Witnesses and Protestants), Muslim (about 800,000 to 1 million), atheist and agnostic 20%

    0-14 years: 13.65% (male 4,334,457/female 4,146,726)

    15-24 years: 9.66% (male 3,008,228/female 2,996,854)

    25-54 years: 42.16% (male 12,933,634/female 13,265,541)

    55-64 years: 12.99% (male 3,914,061/female 4,159,859)

    65 years and over: 21.53% (male 5,758,197/female 7,620,245) (2017 est.)

    population pyramid:

    The World Factbook

    Europe ::ITALY

    Population Pyramid

    A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

    For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page under the References tab.

    total dependency ratio: 56.5

    youth dependency ratio: 21.5

    elderly dependency ratio: 35

    potential support ratio: 2.9 (2015 est.)

    total: 45.5 years

    male: 44.4 years

    female: 46.5 years (2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    0.19% (2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    8.6 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    10.4 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    3.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    despite a distinctive pattern with an industrial north and an agrarian south, a fairly even population distribution exists throughout most of the country, with coastal areas, the Po River Valley, and urban centers (particularly Milan, Rome, and Naples), attracting larger and denser populations

    urban population: 70.4% of total population (2018)

    rate of urbanization: 0.29% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

    ROME (capital) 4.21 million; Milan 3.132 million; Naples 2.198 million; Turin 1.786 million; Bergamo 874,000; Palermo 854,000 (2018)

    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

    15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female

    25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

    55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female

    65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female

    total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2017 est.)

    30.7 years (2014 est.)

    4 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    total: 3.3 deaths/1,000 live births

    male: 3.5 deaths/1,000 live births

    female: 3 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    total population: 82.3 years

    male: 79.6 years

    female: 85.1 years (2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    1.44 children born/woman (2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    65.1%

    note: percent of women aged 18-49 (2013)

    9.2% of GDP (2014)

    country comparison to the world:

    4.02 physicians/1,000 population (2016)

    3.4 beds/1,000 population (2012)

    improved:

    urban: 100% of population

    rural: 100% of population

    total: 100% of population

    unimproved:

    urban: 0% of population

    rural: 0% of population

    total: 0% of population (2015 est.)

    improved:

    urban: 99.5% of population

    rural: 99.6% of population

    total: 99.5% of population

    unimproved::

    urban: 0.5% of population

    rural: 0.4% of population

    total: 0.5% of population (2015 est.)

    0.2% (2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    130,000 (2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    <1000 (2017 est.)

    19.9% (2016)

    country comparison to the world:

    4.1% of GDP (2014)

    country comparison to the world:

    definition: age 15 and over can read and write

    total population: 99.2%

    male: 99.4%

    female: 99% (2015 est.)

    total: 16 years

    male: 16 years

    female: 17 years (2014)

    total: 37.8%

    male: 36.5%

    female: 39.6% (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

  • Government :: ITALY

  • conventional long form: Italian Republic

    conventional short form: Italy

    local long form: Repubblica Italiana

    local short form: Italia

    former: Kingdom of Italy

    etymology: derivation is unclear, but the Latin "Italia" may come from the Oscan "Viteliu" meaning "[Land] of Young Cattle" (the bull was a symbol of southern Italic tribes)

    parliamentary republic

    name: Rome

    geographic coordinates: 41 54 N, 12 29 E

    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

    15 regions (regioni, singular - regione) and 5 autonomous regions (regioni autonome, singular - regione autonoma)

    regions: Abruzzo, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Emilia-Romagna, Lazio (Latium), Liguria, Lombardia, Marche, Molise, Piemonte (Piedmont), Puglia (Apulia), Toscana (Tuscany), Umbria, Veneto

    autonomous regions: Friuli-Venezia Giulia; Sardegna (Sardinia); Sicilia (Sicily); Trentino-Alto Adige (Trentino-South Tyrol) or Trentino-Suedtirol (German); Valle d'Aosta (Aosta Valley) or Vallee d'Aoste (French)

    17 March 1861 (Kingdom of Italy proclaimed; Italy was not finally unified until 1871)

    Republic Day, 2 June (1946)

    history: previous 1848 (originally for the Kingdom of Sardinia and adopted by the Kingdom of Italy in 1861); latest enacted 22 December 1947, adopted 27 December 1947, entered into force 1 January 1948

    amendments: proposed by both houses of Parliament; passage requires two successive debates and approval by absolute majority of each house on the second vote; a referendum is only required when requested by one-fifth of the members of either house, by voter petition, or by five Regional Councils (elected legislative assemblies of the 15 first-level administrative regions and 5 autonomous regions of Italy); referendum not required if an amendment has been approved by a two-thirds majority in each house in the second vote; amended many times, last in 2012; note - a referendum held on 4 December 2016 on constitutional amendments was defeated (2017)

    civil law system; judicial review of legislation under certain conditions in Constitutional Court

    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Italy

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years for EU nationals, 5 years for refugees and specified exceptions, 10 years for all others

    18 years of age; universal except in senatorial elections, where minimum age is 25

    chief of state: President Sergio MATTARELLA (since 3 February 2015)

    head of government: Prime Minister Giuseppe CONTE (since 1 June 2018); the prime minister's official title is President of the Council of Ministers

    cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, known officially as the President of the Council of Ministers and locally as the Premier; nominated by the president

    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of both houses of Parliament and 58 regional representatives for a 7-year term (no term limits); election last held on 31 January 2015 (next to be held in 2022); prime minister appointed by the president, confirmed by parliament

    election results: Sergio MATTARELLA (PD) elected president; electoral college vote count in fourth round - 665 out of 1,009 (505-vote threshold)

    description: bicameral Parliament or Parlamento consists of:

    Senate or Senato della Repubblica (322 seats; 315 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms and 7 ex-officio members appointed by the president of the Republic to serve for life)

    Chamber of Deputies or Camera dei Deputati (630 seats; 629 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 1 member from Valle d'Aosta elected by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)

    elections: Senate - last held on 4 March 2018 (next to be held on March 2023); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 4 March 2018 (next to be held on March 2023); President MATTARELLA dissolved parliament on 28 December 2017, triggering an early election

    election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - center-right coalition 37.5% (L 17.6%, FI 14.4%, FdI 4.3%, UdC 1.2%), M5S 32.2%, center-left coalition (PD 19.1%, +E 2.3%, I 0.5%, CP 0.5%, SVP-PATT 0.4%), LeU 3.3%; seats by party - center-right coalition 77(L 37, FI 33, FdI 7), M5S 68, center-left coalition 44(PD 43, SVP-PATT 1), LeU 4

    Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - center-right coalition 37% (L 17.4%, FI 14%, FdI 4.4%, UdC 1.3%), M5S 33%, center-left coalition 22.9% (PD 18.8%, E+ 2.6%, I 0.6%, CP 0.5%, SVP-PATT 0.4%); seats by party - center-right coalition 151 (L73, FI 59, FdI 19), M5S 133, center-left coalition 88 (PD 86, SVP 2), LeU 14

    highest court(s): Supreme Court of Cassation or Corte Suprema di Cassazione consists of the first president (chief justice), deputy president, 54 justices presiding over 6 civil and 7 criminal divisions, and 288 judges; an additional 30 judges of lower courts serve as supporting judges; cases normally heard by 5-judge panels; more complex cases heard by 9-judge panels; Constitutional Court or Corte Costituzionale (consists of the court president and 14 judges)

    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the High Council of the Judiciary, headed by the president of the republic; judges may serve for life; Constitutional Court judges - 5 appointed by the president, 5 elected by parliament, 5 elected by select higher courts; judges serve up to 9 years

    subordinate courts: various lower civil and criminal courts (primary and secondary tribunals, courts, and courts of appeal)

    Ruling left-center-right coalition: Civic Choice or SC [Enrico ZANETTI]

    Democratic Centre or CD [Bruno TABACCI]

    Democratic Party or PD [interim leader, Maurizio MARTINA]

    Popular Alliance or AP [Angelino ALFANO] (formerly New Center-Right or NCD)

    Union of the Center or UdC [Pier Fernando CASSINI]

    Center-right opposition: Brothers of Italy-National Alliance or FdI-AN [Giorgia MELONI, Ignazio LA RUSSA, and Guido CROSETTO]

    Forza Italia or FI [Silvio BERLUSCONI] (formerly People of Freedom or PdL)

    Northern League or LN [Matteo SALVINI]

    Other parties and parliamentary groups: Five Star Movement or M5S [Luigi DI MAIO]

    Liberal Popular Alliance or ALA [Denis VERDINI]

    Democratic and Progressive Movement or MDP [Roberto SPERANZA]

    Sinistra Italiani or SI [Nicola FRATOIANNI] (formerly Sinistra Ecologia Liberta or SEL)

    South Tyrolean People's Party or SVP [Philipp ACHAMMER]

    ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CDB, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

    chief of mission: Ambassador Armando VARRICCHIO (since 2 March 2016)

    chancery: 3000 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

    telephone: [1] (202) 612-4400

    FAX: [1] (202) 518-2151

    consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Miami, New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, San Francisco

    consulate(s): Charlotte (NC), Cleveland (OH), Detroit (MI), Hattiesburg (MS), Honolulu (HI), New Orleans, Newark (NJ), Norfolk (VA), Pittsburgh (PA), Portland (OR), Seattle

    chief of mission: Ambassador Lewis EISENBERG (since 4 October 2017); note - also accredited to San Marino

    embassy: Via Vittorio Veneto 121, 00187-Rome

    mailing address: PSC 59, Box 100, APO AE 09624

    telephone: (+39)06.46741

    FAX: [39] (06) 4674-2244

    consulate(s) general: Florence, Milan, Naples

    three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; design inspired by the French flag brought to Italy by Napoleon in 1797; colors are those of Milan (red and white) combined with the green uniform color of the Milanese civic guard

    note: similar to the flag of Mexico, which is longer, uses darker shades of red and green, and has its coat of arms centered on the white band; Ireland, which is longer and is green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of the Cote d'Ivoire, which has the colors reversed - orange (hoist side), white, and green

    white, five-pointed star (Stella d'Italia); national colors: red, white, green

    name: "Il Canto degli Italiani" (The Song of the Italians)

    lyrics/music: Goffredo MAMELI/Michele NOVARO

    note: adopted 1946; the anthem, originally written in 1847, is also known as "L'Inno di Mameli" (Mameli's Hymn), and "Fratelli D'Italia" (Brothers of Italy)

  • Economy :: ITALY

  • Italy’s economy comprises a developed industrial north, dominated by private companies, and a less-developed, highly subsidized, agricultural south, with a legacy of unemployment and underdevelopment. The Italian economy is driven in large part by the manufacture of high-quality consumer goods produced by small and medium-sized enterprises, many of them family-owned. Italy also has a sizable underground economy, which by some estimates accounts for as much as 17% of GDP. These activities are most common within the agriculture, construction, and service sectors.

    Italy is the third-largest economy in the euro zone, but its exceptionally high public debt and structural impediments to growth have rendered it vulnerable to scrutiny by financial markets. Public debt has increased steadily since 2007, reaching 131% of GDP in 2017. Investor concerns about Italy and the broader euro-zone crisis eased in 2013, bringing down Italy's borrowing costs on sovereign government debt from euro-era records. The government still faces pressure from investors and European partners to sustain its efforts to address Italy's longstanding structural economic problems, including labor market inefficiencies, a sluggish judicial system, and a weak banking sector. Italy’s economy returned to modest growth in late 2014 for the first time since 2011. In 2015-16, Italy’s economy grew at about 1% each year, and in 2017 growth accelerated to 1.5% of GDP. In 2017, overall unemployment was 11.4%, but youth unemployment remained high at 37.1%. GDP growth is projected to slow slightly in 2018.

    .311 trillion (2017 est.)

    .291 trillion (2016 est.)

    .27 trillion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world:

    .938 trillion (2017 est.)

    1.5% (2017 est.)

    0.9% (2016 est.)

    1% (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    ,100 (2017 est.)

    ,800 (2016 est.)

    ,300 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world:

    20.4% of GDP (2017 est.)

    19.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

    18.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    household consumption: 60.2%

    government consumption: 18.7%

    investment in fixed capital: 17.2%

    investment in inventories: 0.1%

    exports of goods and services: 31.8%

    imports of goods and services: -28% (2017 est.)

    agriculture: 2.1%

    industry: 24%

    services: 73.9% (2017 est.)

    fruits, vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar beets, soybeans, grain, olives; beef, dairy products; fish

    tourism, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing, textiles, motor vehicles, clothing, footwear, ceramics

    0.8% (2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    25.94 million (2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    agriculture: 3.9%

    industry: 28.3%

    services: 67.8% (2011)

    11.1% (2017 est.)

    11.7% (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    29.9% (2012 est.)

    lowest 10%: 2.3%

    highest 10%: 26.8% (2000)

    31.9 (2012 est.)

    27.3 (1995)

    country comparison to the world:

    revenues: 4.4 billion

    expenditures: 7.7 billion (2017 est.)

    46% of GDP (2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    -2.3% of GDP (2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    131.5% of GDP (2017 est.)

    132% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: Italy reports its data on public debt according to guidelines set out in the Maastricht Treaty; general government gross debt is defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year, in the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); the general government sector comprises central, state, and local government and social security funds

    country comparison to the world:

    calendar year

    1.3% (2017 est.)

    -0.1% (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    0.25% (31 December 2013)

    0.75% (31 December 2012)

    note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

    country comparison to the world:

    3.3% (31 December 2017 est.)

    3.5% (31 December 2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    .238 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)

    .101 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)

    note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

    country comparison to the world:

    .694 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)

    .519 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    .264 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)

    .024 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    7.3 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

    5.5 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

    0.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    .07 billion (2017 est.)

    .43 billion (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    9.1 billion (2017 est.)

    4.1 billion (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    engineering products, textiles and clothing, production machinery, motor vehicles, transport equipment, chemicals; foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco; minerals, nonferrous metals

    Germany 12.5%, France 10.3%, US 9%, Spain 5.2%, UK 5.2%, Switzerland 4.6% (2017)

    6.7 billion (2017 est.)

    7.1 billion (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    engineering products, chemicals, transport equipment, energy products, minerals and nonferrous metals, textiles and clothing; food, beverages, tobacco

    Germany 16.3%, France 8.8%, China 7.1%, Netherlands 5.6%, Spain 5.3%, Belgium 4.5% (2017)

    6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

    0.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 18

    .444 trillion (31 March 2016 est.)

    .3 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    5.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

    1.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    7.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

    4.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    euros (EUR) per US dollar -

    0.89 (2017 est.)

    0.9 (2016 est.)

    0.92 (2015 est.)

    0.89 (2014 est.)

    0.76 (2013 est.)

  • Energy :: ITALY

  • electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

    269.3 billion kWh (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    296 billion kWh (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    6.155 billion kWh (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    43.18 billion kWh (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    117 million kW (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    52.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    12.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    28.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    70,670 bbl/day (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    11,610 bbl/day (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    1.231 million bbl/day (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    556.7 million bbl (1 January 2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    1.567 million bbl/day (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    1.253 million bbl/day (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    572,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    449,600 bbl/day (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    5.785 billion cu m (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    67.52 billion cu m (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    21.2 million cu m (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    65.28 billion cu m (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    49.13 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    362 million Mt (2013 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

  • Communications :: ITALY

  • total subscriptions: 20,267,173

    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 33 (July 2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    total: 90,927,149

    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 146 (July 2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

    general assessment: modern, well-developed, fast; fully automated telephone, telex, and data services

    domestic: high-capacity cable and microwave radio relay trunks

    international: country code - 39; a series of submarine cables provide links to Asia, Middle East, Europe, North Africa, and US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (with a total of 5 antennas - 3 for Atlantic Ocean and 2 for Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), and NA Eutelsat (2015)

    two Italian media giants dominate - the publicly owned Radiotelevisione Italiana (RAI) with 3 national terrestrial stations and privately owned Mediaset with 3 national terrestrial stations; a large number of private stations and Sky Italia - a satellite TV network; RAI operates 3 AM/FM nationwide radio stations; about 1,300 commercial radio stations (2007)

    .it

    total: 38,025,661

    percent of population: 61.3% (July 2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world:

  • Transportation :: ITALY

  • number of registered air carriers: 9

    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 382

    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 26,036,010

    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 945,433,732 mt-km (2015)

    I (2016)

    129 (2013)

    country comparison to the world:

    total: 98

    over 3,047 m: 9

    2,438 to 3,047 m: 31

    1,524 to 2,437 m: 18

    914 to 1,523 m: 29

    under 914 m: 11 (2017)

    total: 31

    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

    914 to 1,523 m: 10

    under 914 m: 20 (2013)

    5 (2013)

    gas 20,223 km; oil 1,393 km; refined products 1,574 km (2013)

    total: 20,181.7 km

    standard gauge: 18,770.1 km 1.435-m gauge (12,893.6 km electrified)

    narrow gauge: 122.3 km 1.000-m gauge (122.3 km electrified); 1,289.3 km 0.950-m gauge (151.3 km electrified) (2014)

    country comparison to the world:

    total: 487,700 km

    paved: 487,700 km (includes 6,700 km of expressways) (2007)

    country comparison to the world:

    2,400 km (used for commercial traffic; of limited overall value compared to road and rail) (2012)

    country comparison to the world:

    total: 1,430

    by type: bulk carrier 65, container ship 10, general cargo 145, oil tanker 135, other 1,075 (2017)

    country comparison to the world:

    major seaport(s): Augusta, Cagliari, Genoa, Livorno, Taranto, Trieste, Venice

    oil terminal(s): Melilli (Santa Panagia) oil terminal, Sarroch oil terminal

    container port(s) (TEUs): Genoa (2,243,000), Gioia Tauro (3,512,000), La Spezia (1,300,000) (2015)

    LNG terminal(s) (import): La Spezia, Panigaglia, Porto Levante

  • Military and Security :: ITALY

  • 1.12% of GDP (2017)

    1.51% of GDP (2016)

    1.39% of GDP (2015)

    1.47% of GDP (2014)

    1.59% of GDP (2013)

    country comparison to the world:

    Italian Armed Forces: Army (Esercito Italiano, EI), Navy (Marina Militare Italiana, MMI), Italian Air Force (Aeronautica Militare Italiana, AMI), Carabinieri Corps (Arma dei Carabinieri, CC), Financial Guard (Guardia di Finanza) (2015)

    18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; women may serve in any military branch; Italian citizenship required; 1-year service obligation (2013)

  • Transnational Issues :: ITALY

  • Italy's long coastline and developed economy entices tens of thousands of illegal immigrants from southeastern Europe and northern Africa

    refugees (country of origin): 16,033 (Afghanistan); 14,336 (Somalia); 14,247 (Nigeria); 13,412 (Pakistan); 11,327 (Mali); 10,049 (Eritrea); 7,723 (Gambia); 5,805 (Cote d'Ivoire) (2016); 12,535 (Ukraine) (2018) note - estimate represents asylum applicants since the beginning of the Ukraine crisis in 2014 to September 2017

    stateless persons: 715 (2017)

    note: 474,408 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals by sea (January 2015-August 2018); 119,369 arrivals in 2017

    important gateway for and consumer of Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin entering the European market; money laundering by organized crime and from smuggling





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